Dr. John Studd
clinical gynaecologist

print this pageVariations on HRT.


  1. Writing Group for the Women’s Health Initiative Investigators.  Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women; principal results from the Women’s Health Initiative randomised controlled trial. J.Am. Med. Assoc 2002;288;321-33
  2. Million Women Study Collaborators, Beral V.  Breast cancer and hormone-replacement   Lancet 2002;362;419-27
  3. Studd. J.W.W. "Up to general practice to pick up the pieces -"what pieces?”  A response to WHI and MWS.  Maturitas. 2003 46:95-6.
  4. Harman S.M., Naftolin F., Brinton E.A., Judelsopn D.R., Is the estrogen controversy over? Deconstructing the Women's Health Initiative study: a critical evaluation of the evidence. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1052:43-56.
  5. Clark J.H., A critique of Women’s Health List of studies (2002 – 2006) Nucl. Recep. Signal. 2006 30;4: e023
  6. Whitehead M, Farmer R - The million women study: a critique. Endocrine. 2004 Aug; 24 (3):187-93.
  7. Speroff, L (2003) The Million Women Study and breast cancer.  Maturitas, 46 (2003) 1-6
  8. Genazzani, AR., Gambacciani, M. (2003) The sound of an International anti-HRT herald.  Maturitas, 46 (2) 105-6
  9. NAMS  conference report (www) 2002
  10. RCP (Edin) Consensus conference on HRT Oct 2003
  11. Studd JW.W., Second thoughts on the women's health initiative study: the effect of age on the safety of HRT.  Climacteric. 2004 7(4):412-4.
  12. Manson, J.E., Hsia, J., Johnson, K. C., et al.  Estrogen, progestin and the risk of coronary heart disease 2003. N Engl J Med 349, 523-34.
  13. Anderson, G.L., et al 2004.  Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy.  Women’s Health Institute randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2911701 – 12.
  14. Nelson L.M., Covington S.N., Rebar R.W., An update: spontaneous premature ovarian failure is not an early menopause. Fertil Steril 2005; 83: 1327-32.
  15. Khastgir G., Studd J.W.W., (2000). Patients’ outlook, experience and satisfaction with hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy and subsequent continuation of hormone replace therapy.  Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 183 (6) 1427-33
  16. Campbell S., Whitehead M., Oestrogen therapy and the menopausal syndrome.
    Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 1977 (1):31-47.
  17. Khastgir G., Studd J.W.W., et al (2001) Anabolic effect of estrogen replacement on bone in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis; histomorphometric evidence in a longitudinal study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 86(1) 289-95.
  18. Montgomery J.C., Studd J.W.W. et al.  Effect of estrogen and testosterone implants on psychological disorders in the climacteric. Lancet. 1987 Feb 7;1(8528):297-9.
  19. Watson N.R., Savvas M., Studd J.W.W., Garnett T., Barnet R.J. (1989) Treatment of severe pre-menstrual syndrome with oestradiol patches and cyclical oral norethisterone. Lancet ii: 730-734
  20. Soares C.N., Joffe H, Steiner M., Menopause and Mood. Clin. Obstet Gynecol 2004, 47, 576-591
  21. Schmidt P.J., Mood, Depression and Reproductive Hormones in the Menopausal Transition.  Am. J. Psychiatry 2006, 163; 133-137
  22. Davis S.R., The use of testosterone after menopause. J Br Menopause Soc. 2004 (2):65-9.
  23. Sturdee D., Wade-Evans, T., Patterson, M.E.L., Thom, M., and Studd, J.W.W. (1987) Relations between bleeding pattern, Endometrial histology and Oestrogen treatment in menopausal woman.  Brit. Med. J. 1, 1575-1577
  24. Magos, A.L., Brewster, E., Singh, R., O’Dowd, T., Brincat, M., Studd, J.W.W. (1968) The Effects of Norethisterone in postmenopausal women on Oestrogen replacement therapy: A model for the Premenstrual Syndrome.  Brit. J. Obst. Gynaecol. 93: 1290-6
  25. Panay N., Studd. J.W.W., Progestogen intolerance and compliance with hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women. Hum Reprod Update. 1997  (2) 159-71
  26. Hampton, N.R., Rees, M. C., Lowe, D. G., Rauamol, I., Barlow, D., Guillebaud, J., Levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with conjugated oral equine estrogen: a successful regimen for HRT in perimenopausal women.
    Hum Reprod. 2005 Sep; 20(9):2653-60.
  27. Ettinger B., Ensrud K.E., Wallace R., et al Effects of ultralow-dose transdermal estradiol on bone mineral density: a randomized clinical trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2004; 104(3):443-51.
  28. Patterson M.E., Wade-Evans T., Sturdee D. W., Thom M.H., Studd J.W.W., Endometrial disease after treatment with oestrogens and progestogens in the climacteric. Br .Med J. 1980 22;280(6217):822-4
  29. Brincat, M., Moniz, C.J., Studd, J.W.W., Darby, A., Magos, A.L., Embury, G., Versi, E., Long term effects of the Menopause and Sex Hormones on Skin Thickness.  BR. J. Obst. & Gynae, 92, 256-9
  30. Oliver, M., Boyd, G.S., Effect of bilateral ovariectomy on coronary-artery disease and serum-lipid levels. Lancet. 1959 Oct 31; 2:690-4.
  31. Khastigir G., Studd, J.W.W., Fox, S.W., Jones, J., Alaghband-Zadeh J., Chow, J., (2003). A longitudinal study of the effect of subcutaneous estrogen replacement in bone in young women with Turner’s syndrome. J. Bone Miner. Res. May 18(5) 925-32
  32. Sands, R., Studd, J.W.W., Exogenous androgens in postmenopausal women. Am. J. Med. 1995 Jan 16; 98(1A): 76S-79S. Review.
  33. Studd. J. W. W., Panay, N., Hormones and depression in women. Climacteric 2004 (4): 338-46.
  34. Stevenson, J., Justification for the use of HRT in the long-term prevention of osteoporosis. Maturitas. 2005 Jun 16; 51(2):113-26.
  35. Banks, E., Beral, V., Reeves, G., et al. Fracture incidence in relation to the pattern of use of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women.  JAMA. 2004 May 12; 291(18):2212-20.
  36. Simon J.A., Wehren L. E., Ascott-Evans B. H., et al Skeletal consequences of hormone therapy discontinuance: a systematic review. Obstet Gynaecol Surv. 61:115-24 (2006)
  37. Bagger Y.Z., Tanko L. B., Alexandersen P. et al . Two to three years of hormone replacement treatment in healthy women have long-term preventive effects on bone mass and osteoporotic fractures: the PERF study. Bone.2004  34:728-36
  38. Lindsay R., Tohme, JF. Estrogen treatment of patients with established postmenopausal osteoporosis. Obstet Gynecol. 1990.  76(2):290-5.
  39. Abdalla, H. I., Hart, D.M., Lindsay, R., Beastall, G.H., Organon OD 14 (tibolone) and menopausal dynamic hormone profiles. Maturitas. 1986 Mar;8(1):81-5.
  40. Rymer J., Robinson J., Fogelman., I. Ten years of treatment with Tibolone 2.5mg daily: effects on bone loss in postmenopausal women. Climacteric. 2002 Dec;5(4):390-8.
  41. Horner E., Fleming, J., Studd. J.W.W.  A study of women on long-term hormone replacement therapy and their attitude to suggested cessation.
    Climacteric. 2006 Dec;9(6):459-63
  42. Rousseau JE  Prentice RL  Manson JE et al  Post menopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause JAMA 2007 297  1465-77



  1. North American Menopause Society. Estrogen and progestogen use in peri- and postmenopausal women: March 2007 position statement of The North American Menopause Society.Menopause. 2007 Mar-Apr;14(2):168-82.
  2. Climacteric 2007  in press
  3. Genazzani AR, Gambacciani M, Simoncini T. The latest elaboration of the Women's Health Initiative data on hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women.
    Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007 ;23(4):183-5.